Are we really HIITing it?
Manhattan is a 22.8 square mile island with over 500 fitness facilities. Imagine my excitement when I moved here and realized all the possible classes labeled as my favorite type of training… HIIT!!! The hottest trend is impossible to ignore! You can now find HIIT in multiple formats from cycling to circuits to yoga. Is HIIT meditation next?!?! Bahaha!
In 3 months I completed 25 group classes in different facilities that contained HIIT within the title or the description. Reflecting on these experiences, I asked myself, are we really HIITing it? No. Not even close.
The definition of HIIT is in the name: high intensity interval training. Intensity can easily be monitored with heart rate (HR) and categorized into zones based upon a percentage of the maximum number of beats per minute.
Heart rate zones, relatable speeds, and ability to talk while moving.
The zones are also simply categorized as low (below 60%), moderate (60-80%), vigorous (80-90%), and high (90-100%). Ideally, total exercise time per week would be around 21% low intensity, 45% moderate, 25% vigorous, and only 9% high.
Out of the 25 HIIT classes that I completed, only one class elevated my heart rate above 90% max… this is a problem!
Training above 90% heart rate max is uncomfortable. Not everyone embraces this feeling and therefore not everyone incorporates it into their regular routine. This is FINE! Exercising at this maximal intensity is NOT required to be healthy and fit.
Back to the definition of HIIT and the classes that utilize the term for marketing, interval training is the alternation of work and rest. In order to make the workout high intensity there needs to be a strategy to lift the heart rate above a threshold for the majority of the session time. There are no set rules for the duration of each segment. Instead the goal is to maintain a heart rate above 85% max for two thirds of total time or above 90% max for half the time. Programming this profile requires deliberate exercise sequencing and repeated trials. It is not possible to be exercising at these intensities for over 30 minutes and therefore any workout over 30 minutes is almost certainly not high intensity training, but vigorous exercise. Again, this is FINE – but do not classify the session as HIIT.
Heart rate profiles for a HIIT session and a vigorous session. Please note the shorter total duration of HIIT and the significant time above 90% heart rate max.
Defining HIIT through the name does not include an important fact about the type of training. HIIT is a form of cardio. HIIT is not strength training. Building muscle cannot occur in this zone.
Weights can be utilized to increase intensity as can step benches or plyometric boxes. But equipment is not required. Sprint running is likely the most practiced form of HIIT. And if space is a limitation, it is possible to create an entire workout with body weight exercises, such as burpees, tuck jumps, and high knee running.
So, why is it an issue to label a session as HIIT if it is not delivering the specific definition details from above? Because it is misleading with respect to the potential benefits. Multiple scientific reviews have demonstrated superior outcomes of HIIT for body composition, metabolic disease risk, and cardiorespiratory fitness compared to moderate intensity continuous training.
There are two options. One, discontinue marketing workouts as HIIT unless they adhere to the definition. Or two, modify the session programming with less time, lower weights, faster repetitions, and reduced recovery to push participants into the max zone for true HIIT!
Next week: The benefits of HIIT.